walk(top, topdown=True, onerror=None, followlinks=False)

Directory tree generator.

For each directory in the directory tree rooted at top (including top itself, but excluding ‘.’ and ‘..’), yields a 3-tuple

dirpath, dirnames, filenames

dirpath is a string, the path to the directory. dirnames is a list of the names of the subdirectories in dirpath (excluding ‘.’ and ‘..’). filenames is a list of the names of the non-directory files in dirpath. Note that the names in the lists are just names, with no path components. To get a full path (which begins with top) to a file or directory in dirpath, do os.path.join(dirpath, name).

If optional arg ‘topdown’ is true or not specified, the triple for a directory is generated before the triples for any of its subdirectories (directories are generated top down). If topdown is false, the triple for a directory is generated after the triples for all of its subdirectories (directories are generated bottom up).

When topdown is true, the caller can modify the dirnames list in-place (e.g., via del or slice assignment), and walk will only recurse into the subdirectories whose names remain in dirnames; this can be used to prune the search, or to impose a specific order of visiting. Modifying dirnames when topdown is false is ineffective, since the directories in dirnames have already been generated by the time dirnames itself is generated. No matter the value of topdown, the list of subdirectories is retrieved before the tuples for the directory and its subdirectories are generated.

By default errors from the os.scandir() call are ignored. If optional arg ‘onerror’ is specified, it should be a function; it will be called with one argument, an OSError instance. It can report the error to continue with the walk, or raise the exception to abort the walk. Note that the filename is available as the filename attribute of the exception object.

By default, os.walk does not follow symbolic links to subdirectories on systems that support them. In order to get this functionality, set the optional argument ‘followlinks’ to true.

Caution: if you pass a relative pathname for top, don’t change the current working directory between resumptions of walk. walk never changes the current directory, and assumes that the client doesn’t either.


import os from os.path import join, getsize for root, dirs, files in os.walk(‘python/Lib/email’):

print(root, “consumes”, end=”“) print(sum([getsize(join(root, name)) for name in files]), end=”“) print(“bytes in”, len(files), “non-directory files”) if ‘CVS’ in dirs:

dirs.remove(‘CVS’) # don’t visit CVS directories